Air pollution occurs as a result of the exceedance in the approved concentrationlevels of the major air pollutants in the atmosphere. The major air pollutinggases include the following: Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2),Carbon Monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), and Particulate Matter (PM). Accordingto the World Health Organization (WHO), long-term exposure to thementioned pollutants may result in health effects, such as respiratory andheart diseases. In addition to, atmospheric effects and their contributiontowards global warming and climate change. The sources of these pollutantsinclude both natural and anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sourcesinclude fossil fuel burning processes; air, sea, and land transport; operationalprocesses, industrial activities, energy production and water desalination.According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the largestcontributor to air emissions involve the transportation sector. Moreover, thenatural sources include dust storms, fires, and volcanic activities.
Dubai Municipality monitors air quality through an integrated network offixed monitoring stations, in order to ensure an enhanced air environmentand compliance of various industrial and operational processes with the city'senvironmental standards and determinants. An "Air Quality Index" is used to display the daily state of air quality, by measuring the concentrations ofthe criteria pollutants. The current results of the pollutant concentrationsreflect compliance with the environmental standards and determinants setfor the Emirate of Dubai. However, due to the geographical location of thecity, and its prevailing climatic conditions, such as high temperatures and theoccurrence of dust storms; the city entails some challenges in maintaining thelevels of Particulate Matter (PM), to be below the approved environmentalstandards and determinants.
Non-ionizing electromagnetic frequency is a group of invisible, low frequencywaves generated by a group of natural sources (the Earth's magneticfield, and thunderstorms), and anthropogenic sources (electrical powergeneration, transmissions lines, communication towers, and mobile phones).In comparison to ionizing electromagnetic frequency, which is generatedmainly from medical equipment, the health threat from non-ionizingelectromagnetic frequency is not significant. According to the World HealthOrganization (WHO), exposure to non-ionizing frequency from naturalsources is equivalent to 79%, compared to anthropogenic sources thatconstitute to 21%.
Noise pollution is one of the challenges being faced by urban cities around the world, due to urban growth and expansion in the various vital sectors. The rise in noise levels above the approved environmental standards constitute health and environmental effects. Dubai Municipality monitors noise levels in real time through a network of stations installed in various urban areas around the Emirates, this includes assessing the Nosie levels and ensuring their compliance with the determinants stipulated in the local laws. Dubai Municipality has also coordinated with the concerned sectors in order to implement initiatives and procedures that contribute to limiting the generation and spread of noise. As a result, the noise levels are presented through a colored An "Noise Index" for the Emirate of Dubai, which allows the public to view the real-time noise levels in various locations around Dubai.
Dubai Municipality has developed the "Guidance on the Environmental Clearance (EC) Requirements for Development, Infrastructure, and Industrial Projects in the Emirate of Dubai" to provide project owners and environmental consultants with a comprehensive guidance regarding the procedures and requirements to obtain an EC for development, infrastructure and industrial projects in the Emirate of Dubai. The guidance outlines the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process tailored for Dubai's dynamic environmental and development settings. It also provides project categorization, as per Federal Law No. 24 of 1999, and based on this it provides a mandatory list of projects required to be subjected to an EIA. The guidance further defines the roles and responsibilities of the concerned EIA stakeholders and outlines the registration guidelines for the registrations of Environmental Consultants in Dubai, including details on the minimum qualification requirements and evaluation criteria. The Guidance on the Environmental Clearance (EC) ensures that a well-informed decision-making process is in place and that the project implementation is consistent with the Strategic Visions.